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6. Appendices

Appendix 1. Table of the themes, sub-themes and codes to participation and progression along the recognised sporting pathway.




Competing PrioritiesEducationLack of time for schoolwork
Prioritise education over sport
Parents influence prioritisation of education
Teachers compete for attention
Sport CommitmentsDesire for multiple sporting interests
Clash in scheduling of sports
Difficult to choose between sports
Enhanced connection in other sports
Established friendships in other sports
Parental preference for other sports
Increased risk of injury in other sports
Coaches compete for attention
Other Interests and CommitmentsPart-time jobs
Volunteering / coaching
Family commitments 
Fear of missing out
Logistical ChallengesTransportDistance from facility / opportunity 
Transport’s impact on parents 
Alternative modes of transport
Safety concerns with alternative modes of transport
Travel logistics a distraction
Inability to capitalise on opportunities
FinancialAcute awareness of financial requirements
Financial burden on family
Absence of Coping SkillsHarnessing Motivation and CommitmentMotivation and commitment as non-negotiables
Commitment especially needed on ‘bad days’
Lack of motivation / commitment forces removal from sport
Dealing With PressureDislike feeling of pressure
Pressure reduces athletic performance
Pressure eventually causes removal from sport
Varied sources of pressure
Dealing With Poor PerformanceHigh and lows experienced in short amount of time
Perceived lack of improvement
Disappointing results / performance
Comparison with other athletes
Dealing With Physical DemandsBalancing various commitments
Gradual increase in physical demands
The impact of injury
Unfavourable PerceptionsWhat the Sport Can OfferStatus of the sport
Uncertain future in the sport
Lack of career opportunities
Involvement to facilitate participation in other sports
Pathway PerceptionsPerceived challenges
Perceived time commitments
Perceived ‘intensity’ of pathway
Perceived age restrictions
Pathway AwarenessKnowledge of the pathway
Lack of pathway awareness - stages
Lack of pathway awareness - detail
Lack of information about pathway provided
Comparisons / assumptions of other sport(s) pathways 
Lack of publicity / discussion of pathway
Disagreeable Experiences[Lack of] EnjoymentNo point taking part in sport without enjoyment 
 Factors contributing to lack of enjoyment
 Various consequences of lack of enjoyment 
 Sport CultureFeelings of isolation within certain sports
 Lack of understanding outside of sport
 Over reliance on competition
 Growing pathway intensity
 The Physical EnvironmentLack of local facilities
 Poor availability of facilities 
 Inadequate facilities 
 Lack of specific equipment
 Personal RelationshipsLack of friendships / social cohesion
 Too much variation in ability / ages
 Poor coach-athlete relationship
 Poor coach-parent relationship
 Unfavourable coach attributes and behaviours
 Parental interests






Appendix 2. Extended list of considerations. 

Disagreeable Experiences

[Lack of Enjoyment] / Sport Culture / The Physical Environment / Personal Relationships

  • How open minded are you about the delivery method? 
  • Do you have the right balance of fun, training, and competition opportunities? 
  • Do you have insight regarding what type of activity and experiences that young people with sporting potential want to engage with and are most likely to respond to?
  • What are the key learning experiences that you are seeking to provide through your competition programme and how does your competition programme support development?
  • Are the needs of young people at the centre of your provision?
  • Do you actively consider generational cultural trends – e.g., free-spirited nature and a greater focus on personal relationships?
  • Are all stakeholders working towards a shared vision of athlete experience? 
  • How can you create an environment across your pathway where athletes feel they can talk openly about how they’re feeling / challenges they are facing, without fear of judgement?  
  • Do you foster a “community feeling” within a sport environment and across the sport culture? 
  • Do you provide parents / families / the support network with information on how to enhance the sport experience for their young people? 

Competing Priorities

Education / Sport Commitments / Other Interests and Commitments

  • How flexible is your offering based on different athlete needs and competing demands?
  • Are your coaches and decision-makers empathetic to the challenges and responsibilities young people have outside of their sport? 
  • Do you work with athletes and educators to understand the various challenges that they face, and how sport(s) can help them best manage those challenges?
  • Does your performance pathway and programme have multiple entry / exit points to cater for the various routes athletes may take as they progress on their sporting and educational journey?
  • Are your Pathways considerate of non-linear progression? How do you create space for outliers?
  • Have potential risks around current selection / identification methods been acknowledged and managed?

Logistical Challenges

Transport / Financial 

  • Do you actively consider accessibility of opportunities to overcome logistical challenges? 
  • Do you provide up-to-date information to athletes / parents / educators to raise awareness of accessible opportunities? 
  • Do you continually evaluate the impact of inequality of access to pathway entry / progression and the implications for not being able to grow and diversify your talent pool?

Absence of Coping Skills

Harnessing Motivation and Commitment / Dealing with Pressure / Dealing with Poor Performance / Dealing with Physical Demands

  • Do your pathways, sessions and coaches look to develop the person and their wider skills, as well as performance?
  • What opportunities and challenges can be created within a safe environment that enable athletes to develop and support their motivation towards training and competing? 
  • Is information available to athletes / coaches / parents to support coping with pressurised events and managing potential setbacks?
  • How could you best design and manage competitive experiences to maximise growth and increase understanding of athlete potential? 
  • How could you track progress and rate of learning (future potential) rather than absolute measures or measures of performance (performance now)?
  • How could you go about working with more athletes over extended periods to better understand athlete potential?


Unfavourable Perceptions

What the Sport can offer / Pathway Awareness / Pathway Perception

  • What do you think is the external perception of your sport and performance pathway?
  • How easy is your pathway to understand for those new to the Sport’s community?
  • Is all relevant information relating to your pathway readily accessible through various and appropriate means for a variety of audiences (e.g., athletes, parents and coaches)?